Ankle Sprain

Description

  • Usually results from a twist of the ankle inwards.
  • Occasionally, the ankle twist can be outward.
  • Involves the stretching or tearing of one or more ligaments of the ankle.
  • Painful and disabling injury can become a chronic problem.

It is divided into 3 gravity levels:
1st degree

– the most common and least serious, as long as they are not neglected

– the ligaments that connect the bones of the ankle are stretched but not torn
2nd degree

– more serious injuries

– the ankle ligaments are partly torn
3rd degree

– the most severe injuries

– tears of the ligaments of the ankle are more pronounced, but rarely require surgery

– can let loose and unstable ankle ligaments

Presentation

  • Pain and swelling beginning at the level of the injured area, which can extend to the entire ankle and foot with time.
  • Dry noise or tearing sensation at the time of injury
  • Ecchymosis that can spread in the region
  • Difficulty walking after the incident

Causes

  • Excessive ankle stress
  • Pre-ankle injury
  • Muscles weak
  • Footwear with inadequate support
  • Inadequate heating and stretching
  • Activities involving stops and changes in abrupt directions or walking / running on irregular surfaces
  • Family history

Treatments

Step # 1 (first 72 hours)

  • Decreased inflammation with ice (20 minutes / 2 hours), elevation of the foot and complementary therapies such as neurocryotherapy and kinesio taping.
  • Medications (anti-inflammatory and pain relief) as needed
  • Compression of the ankle using a bandage
  • Crutches as required

Step # 2 (1st week)

  • Decreased inflammation (idem)
  • Walk normally as soon as pain is no longer present
  • Supporting the ankle with a bandage or an orthopedic device
  • Articular manipulations and soft tissue work (Active Release Techniques and Graston) to correct ankle biomechanics and reduce scar tissue
  • Mobility Exercises
  • Medications (anti-inflammatory and pain relief) as needed

Step # 3 (2nd week or more)

  • Joint and soft tissue manipulation (Active Release Techniques and Graston)
  • Rehabilitation to increase strength, ankle flexibility and balance
  • Plasma-rich plasma

Provide good support to the ankle during sports practice for several months after the injury (bandage, orthotics and shoes with good support)

Prognostic

1st degree : return to sport activities after 2 or 3 weeks
2nd degree : return to sports activities after 6 to 10 weeks off
3rd degree : the ligaments can take more than 3 months to heal completely